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Fortigate and WCCP

Web Cache Communication Protocol - WCCP Fortigate is compatible with WCCP protocol version 2 and can be configured on the Fortinet Firewall to optimize web traffic.  

WCCP architecture

1. Routers (responsible for redirecting to the WCCP Server) 2. Web Cache - cluster of server 3. Service Groups - this is used to identify sensitive traffic and encapsulates methods between endpoints in the config.  

Fortigate Traffic Optimization

Fortigate is capable of Traffic Optimization, isn't that cool ? The following are the things that can affect the Network and Application Performance 1. Bandwidth 2. Latency 3. Throughput 4. Congestion 5. Packet Loss   The Fortinet Firewall is capable of dealing with all of them by using WAN Optimization Technique: 1. Protocol Optimization 2. Byte Caching 3. Web Caching 4. Transparent proxy  

1. Protocol Optimization

It's an application technique to improve performance of HTTP, CIFS, FTP, MAPI and TCP protocol traffic. I guess you know all of them except CIFS. This is a common internet file system protocol - provides file access, recoring, change notification etc

What is a Firewall

The firewall is probably the best known security appliance. By definition firewall is a system or a group of systems which implements access policy between two or more networks. Firewalls can be classified into four main classes: 1. Dedicated firewalls  2. Routers integrated firewalls 3. Servers integrated firewalls  4. Personal firewalls    1. Dedicated firewalls are hosts that runs an operating system designed for packet filtering and addresses translation. We can exemplify PIX systems or Checkpoint. These systems are capable of sustaining a large number of connections but routing facilities are extremely limited. For a simple network , firewall can be used as a router. For more complex networks is necessary a router. 2. Firewalls integrated into routers are used to remove the previous insufficiency. This class can not sustain the same number of connections, but it does better in more complex topologies, where you need the facilities of a router. Many products provide routers integrated firewall facilities, from firewall modules for high-end routers, to extremely compact dedicated for use in SOHO networks.

Fortigate Routing

In this article i will describe some routing capabilities that Fortigate has. Routing Protocols   Fortigate is capable of many routing Protocols: 1. Static Routes (not really a routing protocol 😉 ) 2. BGP 3. RIP 4. OSPF   The Fortigate Firewall has also a Routing table 1that displays all the learned routes and also a FIB table. You might know about FIB from the Cisco CEF. Routing Features:  FIB  The FIB contains all local and non-local routes that are known to the Device. It is populated by the routing table and in the High-Availability mode FIB is replicated among the clusters, but only the Master builds up the FIB, based on the routing table. Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) This is used for anti-spoofing protection. You can find more about Reverse Path Forwarding here. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) This is used to deal with dynamic routing protocols problems, of not having a fine granularity for detecting device failures on the network and re-routing around those failures. This works like the "hellos" of the OSPF routing protocol, but it actually connects to the router. Default Administrative Distances for Fortigate: 1. The Fortigate Firewall assigns an AD of "20" to EBGP routes. 2. Static Routes have an AD of  "10" 3. Connected Routes have an AD of "0" 4. When you configure the BGP protocol a default route-map is created to make the AS non-tranzit (cool feature)   If you have any questions please ask.    

Fortigate Conserve Mode – How to stop it and what it means

The Fortigate Firewall has more diagnostic tools, but you will mostly be faced with the following problems: 1. Conserve Mode This problem happens when the memory shared mode goes over 80%. To exit this conserve mode you have to wait (or kill some  of the processes) until the memory goes under 70%. 2. Antivirus FailOpen This is a safeguard feature that determines the behavior of the Fortigate AntiVirus System, when it becomes overloaded with high traffic. To mitigate this you have more type of options:
#set av-failopen { off | on-shot | pass | idledrop}
Below we will describe what all of them do: a. Off - if the FG enters conserve mode, the Fortigate will stop accepting new AV sessions, but will continue to process currently active sessions