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Linux File System

 

Linux core offers support for a large number of file systems. User interface provided is the same no matter the type of file system back. Generally different file names and directories are simple to be used efficiently in command line such as  bin/, var/, usr/, lib. Mac Os uses more clear names
such as /library/, /Applications/, /Users/. Most of Linux distributions offers compatible interface with Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 3. FHS defines the main directories names and the content of it in a Linux distribution such as :

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Directory                                                     Description

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/ bin /                           binary commands associated with significant executable

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/ dev /                          dev / null , dev / hda , dev / random  devices

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/ etc /                           configurations files

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/home/                         home users directories

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/ lib /                            libraries

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/ mnt /                          temporary system files

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/ proc /                         file system procfs

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/ root /                          users home ( root )

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/ sbin /                         executable commands that requires privileged user rights

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/ usr /                           secondary hierarchy : contains binaries and libraries

—————————————————————————————————————-

/ var /                           variable files (logs, queues, temporary)

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Basics for managing a Linux system

 

Linux administration activities are similar to any Unix system.
The important components are hardware device administration, files system, users administration, programs packs administration, services administration, system security ensuring and automation tasks.

Most of system administrator interactions with Linux operating system will be done through the command line interface (shell) and text configuration files.

The components of a GNU / Linux / Distributions

An GNU/Linux operating system consists of core (kernel), Linux and applications running over it.
One of the most significant application is the command interpreter (the shell). On most of Linux distributions the shell is Bash.
The shell acts as an intermediary between user and core. The shell transforms users command in to process which is using the core to complete a task.

Fortigate Directory Services Authentication

The Fortinet Firewall is capable of integrating with the Microsoft Active directory.

It can use the following Methods:

I. Fortigate FSAE/FSSO

This feature provides a transparent authentication for the users.

 

In the older version you can fin it named as FortinetFSAE, but in the new versions it appears are Fortinet FSSO.

The Fortigate FSAE/FSSO is composed of the following 2 softwares:

1. Domain Controller Agent

This software monitors the user login. This software is deployed on the Domain Controllers of the users domain. You can find it in C:\Windows\System32\dcagent.dll

Fortigate IPS

Fortigate IPS – Intrusion Prevention System

IPS is a way to stop malicious users to attack your Server/PCs by using exploits or any other kind of attacks.

The IPS from the Fortigate uses the following 2 to help you prevent attacks:

1. Protocol Decoders – are used to define abnormal traffic

2. Signatures – it uses already defined signatures to catch malicious traffic.

 

IPS Sensor